Some cube-shaped dice, carved from bone, were used with
markings on all six sides, much like modern versions, while other dice had
marks on just four sides. A variety of games was played, some using two dice,
others using three. As the Romans conquered Europe their games traveled with
them and changed under the influence of different cultures.
By the 18th and 19th centuries a dice game called Hazard had
become popular in England and was played by the aristocracy in private
gambling houses. The lowest possible score was a pair of ones - known as
crabs. When the game was introduced to France, the word crabs was
misinterpreted as "craps", giving one of the most popular casino
games its name.
European settlers took the game with them to America, where
it was simplified and evolved into the game that is now played in casinos
around the world.
Two-up is another modern game that has its origins in Roman
times, when coin tossing was a popular street game. Players would bet on
whether the coin would land on heads or ships (tails). In England this
developed into pitch and toss, using two pennies. When Australia was settled,
pitch and toss continued to be played by the new immigrants. The game was
popular with Anzac (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) soldiers during
World War I, when it became known as two-up. In Australia it became
traditional to play two-up on Anzac Day.